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There is a multiplicity of references, both published and unpublished, many of which mention Patuone specifically. The following is a listing of key references but this is by no means inclusive of all.

References to Patuone

Ballara, A. (1998). Iwi: The Dynamics of Māori Tribal Organisation from c.1769 to c.1945. Wellington: Victoria University Press.

Ballara, A. (2003). Taua. Auckland: Penguin Books.

Belich, J. (1986). New Zealand Wars. Auckland: Penguin Books.

Belich, J. (1986). The New Zealand Wars. Auckland: Auckland University Press

Belich, J. (1996). Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders. Auckland: Penguin Books.

Binney, J. (2005). The Legacy of Guilt: A Life of Thomas Kendall. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books.

Cowan, J. (1955). The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Māori Campaigns and Pioneering Period: Volume I: 1845-1864. Wellington: R.E. Owen, Government Printer.

Davis, C.O. (1876, 1974). The Life and Times of Patuone. Auckland: J.Field/Christchurch: Capper Press Reprint.

Dench, A. (2005). Essential Dates. Auckland: Random House.

Durie, M. (2005). Whaiora: Māori Health Development. Auckland: Oxford University Press.

Fitzgerald, C. (2004). Letters from the Bay of Islands: The Story of Marianne Williams. Auckland: Penguin Books.

Goldsmith, P. (2003). The Rise and Fall of Te Hemara Tauhia. Auckland: Reed

Lee, J. (1987, 2006). Hokianga. Auckland: Hodder & Stoughton.

Mein-Smith, P. (2005). A Concise History of New Zealand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Monin, P. (2001). This Is My Place: Hauraki Contested 1769-1875. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books Limited.

Moon, P. (2001). Hone Heke Ngāpuhi Warrior. Auckland: David Ling Publishing.

Moon, P. (2007). The Newest Country in the World. Auckland: Penguin Books.

Moon, P., Biggs, P. (2004). The Treaty and its Times. Auckland: Resource Books.

Ngata, A.T., Hurinui, P.T. (1970). Nga Moteatea. Vol. III. Wellington: The Polynesian Society Inc.

Orange, C. (2001). The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books Limited.

Orange, C. (2004). An Illustrated History of the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books Limited.

Owens, J.M.R. (1974). Prophets in the Wilderness. New Zealand: Auckland University Press/Oxford University Press.

Petrie, H. (2006). Chiefs of Industry. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

Poiner-Webster, J.P. (1967). The Rata Tree. Self-published booklet.

Reed, A.H. (Ed.). (1979). Māori Scenes and Portraits. Wellington: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Rusden, G.W. (1883). A History of New Zealand, Volume I. London: Chapman and Hall Limited.

Salmond, A. (1991). Two Worlds. Auckland: Viking/Penguin Books.

Salmond, A. (2004). TheTrial of the Cannibal Dog. Auckland: Penguin Books.

Serabian, H. (2005). Le Journal du Père Antoine Garin 1844-1846. Une édition critique présentée avec commentaire, transcription et annotations. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Christchurch: University of Canterbury.

Simmons, D.R. (1976). The Great New Zealand Myth. Wellington: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Smith, P.S. (1910). Māori Wars of the Nineteenth Century. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs.

Thompson, N. (2006). Heke te Toa! How Has Hone Heke Pokai, Pictorially Represented, Contributed to the Construction of New Zealand’s National Identity? Unpublished MA thesis. Christchurch: University of Canterbury.

Urlich-Cloher, D. (2003). Hongi Hika, Warrior Chief. Auckland: Viking.

Wards, I. (1968). The Shadow of the Land. Wellington: A.R.Shearer, Government Printer.

Wolfe, R. (2007). A Society of Gentlemen: the Untold Story of the First New Zealand Company. Auckland: Penguin. Auckland: Penguin.


There are many manuscript references to Patuone, the most important of which have been indicated here. The best collections are held in libraries in New Zealand, notably the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington; Hocken Library, Dunedin; Auckland City Library, Auckland; and Auckland Museum Library, Auckland. An interchange system means that a sharing of copies between institutions is possible. Archives New Zealand is another source of significant manuscripts from the various documentation agencies whose records are deposited there.

Caution needs to be exercised with the explanations provided by institutions as these may also contain errors. The administrator has pointed out a number of significant errors to the Alexander Turnull Library, in particular and these have been corrected, notably the claim that Patuone visited England in 1836 and the suggestion that Ani Kaaro, a younger sister of the administrator’s grandmother, was the daughter of Hohaia and his wife Harata. Hohaia’s wife was of course, Kateao Te Takupu, in turn, daughter of Te Takupu Horau and his wife, Te Ruhi. The Harata referred to may well be Harata Tarapata, the grand-daughter of Patuone and Nene’s older sister Tari and her husband Te Wharerahi. Harata married Paora Tuhaere.

Errors are also found in details and whakapapa within the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. These have also been brought to their attention. The key problem is that an error, once made, is perpetuated by following writers until a correction is made and taken up. In fact, much of the current public record related to Tarapata and Tupanapana is incorrect. Based on whanau sources, the Moon claim of of a direct familial connection between Heke and Patuone, Nene, and Tari through Tupanapana, is also manisfestly wrong. There has been confusion with another Tupanapana. Heke and Patuone and his siblings are of course relationally connected through descent down different lines from Rahiri.

Pictorial References

Patuone and Nene are two of the most photographed and painted Māori. Apart from family archives maintained by the site administrator, Dr Benjamin Pittman, which contain over 300 images of Patuone, Nene and various uri (descendants) and whanaunga (relatives), the largest public collection of Patuone and Nene images is again in the Alexander Turnbull Library. Auckland City Libraries also hold copies of photographs. The Auckland City Art Gallery also hosues the two Lindauer portraits of Patuone and Nene. Both were painted from photographs after Nene and Patuone had died. The Auckland City Art Gallery photographic collection includes a photograph which is wrongly identified as Tamati Waka Nene. In s[pite pf the error being pointed out to the Gallery, more than a year after the error was raised, the Gallery has failed to correct it.

There is considerable resentment that such institutions may charge fees to reproduce photographic and other images of tūpuna, regardless of the excuses they make for doing so. Refer to the Photographs section of this site for specific images.
Note: Copies of the photographs are in the possession of the administrator but where there are extant copies in public and private institutions, these sources are also indicated.

  1. Patuone with a shot gun: photograph: John Nichol Crombie (ATL), c.1855
  2. Patuone with taiaha and Inverness Cape: photograph: photographer unknown (BMM), c.1862
  3. Patuone with kaitaka and hei tiki: photograph: G.Redfern c.1870
  4. Patuone with taiaha: photograph: photographer unknown: c.1862
  5. Patuone with kakahu kuri: photograph: photographer unknown: c.1850
  6. Patuone and Heke: colour lithograph: George French Angas: (ATL) c.1847
  7. Patuone: posthumous pencil drawing: Rev. Laishley: (ATL) c.1886
  8. Patuone and Nene with de Thierry at government house, Auckland: pencil drawing: Charles de Thierry: (ATL) c.1848
  9. Patuone: Gottfried Lindauer: oil on canvas: (ACAG), 1874
  10. Patuone’s grave: Mt Victoria, Devonport Auckland: photograph: Dr B. Pittman: 2007
  11. Patuone’s grave inscription: Mt Victoria, Devonport Auckland: photograph: Dr B. Pittman: 2007
  12. Patuone’s village: Native Village and Cowdie Forest: Augustus Earle: (NLA; ATL), 1827
  13. Nene’s grave: Russell, Bay of Islands: photograph: Dr B. Pittman: 2007
  14. Charles Oliver Bond Davis: photograph: photographer unknown: c.18
  15. Nene in formal dress: photograph: photographer unknown: c.1870
  16. Nene in jacket: photograph: photographer unknown: c.1870
  17. Nene in kaitaka with gun: watercolour: Joseph Jenner Merrett: (ATL), c.1846
  18. The road to Nene’s : watercolour: Williams: (ATL), c.1845.
  19. Nene as a carved image: unknown Ngāpuhi carver: drawing by George French Angas: (TPT), c.1825
  20. Nene: Gottfried Lindauer: oil on canvas: (ACAG), 1874
  21. Nene: posthumous portrait: Charles Frederick Goldie: oil on canvas: (ACAG), 1934
  22. Manira Pitman, Okeroa Pitman and Harry Pitman: Cowdery Studio photograph: photographer unknown: c.1931
  23. Hoana Hohaia: Cowdery Studio photograph: photographer unknown: c.1915

General References

These references provide useful background to many of the issues which confronted Patuone and his fellow rangatira.

Banner, S. (2007). Possessing the Pacific: Land, Settlers and Indigenous People from Australia to Alsaka. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Bannister, S. (1838). An Account of the Changes and Present Condition of the Population of New Zealand. Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 1, No. 6 (Oct., 1838).

Bargh, M (Ed.) (2007). Resistance: An Indigenous Response to Neoliberalism. Wellington: Huia Publishers.

Cell, J.W. (1970). British Colonial Administration in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: The Poliy-Making Process. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.

Ellingson, T. (2001).     The Myth of the Noble Savage. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jones, P. te H., Biggs, B. (1996). Nga Iwi o Tainui.Auckland: University of Auckland Press.

Meek, R. (1976). Social Science and the Ignoble Savage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nesfield, H. (1881). A Chequered Career: or, Fifteen Years’ Experiences in Australia and New Zealand. London: Richard Bentley & Son.

Orange, C. (2004). The Story of a Treaty.

O’Sullivan, D. (2007). Beyond Bi-culturalism: The Politic of an Indigenous Minority.Wellington: Huia Publishers.

Pagden, A. (1982). The Fall of Natural Man: the American Indian and the Origins of Comparative Ethnology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pagden, A. (1987). The languages of political theory in early-modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pagden, A. (1993). European Encounters with the New World: from Renaissance to Romanticism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Robinson, S.T. (2005). Tohunga: The Revival: Ancient Knowledge for the Modern Era. Auckland: Reed Publishing.

Rousseau, J-J. (1755).  A Discourse on Inequality. Maurice Cranston, trans. London: Penguin, 1984.

Rousseau, J-J. (1762). The Social Contract or Principles of Political Right. G.D.H. Cole, trans. Kessinger Publishing, 2004

Servant, Fr. C. (1973). Customs and Habits of the New Zealanders 1838-42. Ed. D.R.Simmons, translated by Dr J. Glasgow. Wellington: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Simon, J & Smith, L.T. (eds). (2001). A Civilising Mission? Perceptions and Representations of the New Zealand Native Schools System. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

Sissons, J., Wi Hongi, W., Hohepa, P. (2001). Nga Puriri o Taiamai. Auckland: Reed Books/Polynesian Society

Smith, L.T. (1999). Decolonizing Methodologies. London: Zed Books & Dunedin:University of Otago Press:

Thomas, N. (2003). Discoverers: The Voyages of Captain Cook. London: Allen Lane.

Vaggioli, F. (1896). History of New Zealand and its Inhabitants. Translated J. Crockett, 2000. Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Ward, A. (1999). An Unsettled History. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books.

Wevers, L., ed., (2000). Travelling to New Zealand. An Oxford Anthology. Auckland: Oxford University Press.

Wolfe, R. (2005). Hell-hole of the Pacific. Auckland: Penguin Books

Journal Articles

Knox, B.A. (1971). The Rise of Colonial Federation as an Object of British Policy, 1850-1870. The Journal of British Studies, Vol.11, No.1. (November), pp.92-112.

Manning, H.T. (1965). Who Ran the British Empire 1830-1850? The Journal of British Studies, Vol.5, No.1. (November), pp.88-121.

Tyler, W.B. (1971). Sir George Grey and the Imperial Military Burden, 1855-1860. The Historical Journal, Vol.14, No.3. (September), pp.581-598.


The major interest in these reports is the fact that they gather together important data and documentation within the context of Tai Tokerau (Northland). Together they provide endless examples of the terrible history and aftermath of colonisation, a process at once overt and subtle through which Māori were systematically dispossessed by pākēhā legislation, lack of consultation, administrative machinations and incompetence and progressive alienation. Other specific reports are available on websites such as that of the Waitangi Tribunal (see below).

Armstrong, D.A., Subasic, E. (2006). Northern Land Politics: A Draft Overview Report. Prepared for the Crown Forestry Rental Trust.

Hearn, T.J. (2006). Social and Economic Change in Northland c.1900 to c.1945: The Role of the Crown and the Place of Māori. A Report Commissioned by the Crown Forestry Rental Trust.

McBurney, P. (2006). Northland: Public Works and Other Takings: c.1871-1993. Auckland: Report commissioned by the Crown Forestry Rental Trust for Northland Inquiry Districts.

Internet References

Alexander Turnbull Library (National Library of New Zealand)

Archives New Zealand

Auckland City Libraries

Auckland Institute and War Memorial Museum Library

Dictionary of New Zealand Biography

Hooker, B. Journal of Abel Janszoon Tasman 1642-1643.

National Library of New Zealand

Ngā Kaitiaki Rēti Ngahere Karauna (Crown Forestry Rental Trust)

Ngāpuhi hapū and marae

Patuone: official website (Site Administrator: Dr Benjamin Pittman)

Waitangi Tribunal

Ward, Alan. 'Davis, Charles Oliver Bond 1817/1818? - 1887'.  Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 7 April 2006

Te Ara: The Encyclopaedia of New Zealand


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